December 2016 Archive

Share Your Tula Resolution

We always love the “fresh start” feelings that a new year brings. It’s a time to reflect on what you enjoyed most from the previous year and consider what you want to focus on for the next. With each new step forward towards empowering goals, favorite passions, or personal promises, we hope to be there with you!

We created the sign,below, that you can print out and affirm your 2017 goals by personalizing it with your Tula resolution. Download the PDF to print!

Share your photos on Facebook and Instagram to enter our Tula resolution giveaway! Be sure to tag us (@tulababycarriers) and use the hashtag #mytularesolution

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Download a PDF

Carried to Connect: Katie & Christina’s Story
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At Baby Tula, we have seen, first hand, how babywearing can benefit families in countless ways; from basic tasks getting completed to helping a baby and caretaker create a lifelong bond. You share your stories and we learn of so many poignant journeys that embody our motto: Keep Doing What You Love. It’s these moments, simple and grand, that we celebrate with our community. Here, we share the empowering story of Christina and Katie, of Baby Bailey Mama Drama, who faced IVF challenges to welcome their little girl.

HOW THEY MET

Before Kennedy, Katie and I started out as a couple in love. It was 2012. We met online through a dating website. We were so embarrassed to tell anyone we met online that it wasn’t until this year we finally came out with the truth. Some of our friends had already suspected we met through the internet, but we never confirmed it. Instead we had so many confusing, made up stories of how we met. It was hard to keep straight what story we had told people.

The first time we met was at a park by my house. I walked over there after I finished work at a restaurant I worked at in town. I made her a milkshake before I got off of work to bring with me to the park. I wasn’t sure if there was chemistry at first. It wasn’t until our next meeting that I knew Katie was the one. She showed up with flowers on my doorstep and that is when I knew. After that, our weekends were spent taking turns driving an hour back and forth to each other’s houses.

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THEIR IVF JOURNEY

Katie and I started our Reciprocal IVF journey thinking we would make our dreams become a reality. I had always wanted to have kids but Katie didn’t want kids until she met me. She told me she wanted to carry my egg so we could both be a part of the process. We agreed this would be the best way to have children. As we embarked on our baby journey, we came across the saying, “her bun, my oven.” We thought this was an easy and clever way to explain how we wanted to make our family.

After our first IVF appointment, we already had in mind what we wanted. We wanted to implant two embryos and we hoped to have one boy and one girl. We also wanted to implant two embryos and hoped at least one would take. We never imagined implanting two embryos would cause problems later in our journey.

Our first round of IVF was exhilarating. We were so excited during the entire process. The day we received all our shots in the mail was like Christmas morning. We couldn’t wait to get started. It’s a long process of medications before we have embryos ready to implant. I mapped out who had what shot on what day and if we were supposed to take it in the morning or evening. In the beginning, it was mostly me who did all the shots. This prepared my body for an egg retrieval. Meanwhile, we started looking for a sperm donor online. It’s hard to pick someone that will play a genetic role in your child’s life. We tried to find someone who resembled Katie as much as possible but also had similar interests. This sounds easier said than done.

The day of egg retrieval was terrible. My body was in so much pain. I was told many women feel moderate pain but of course I felt intense cramping. The pain continued after my surgery. It hurt to stand up, walk, and go the bathroom. I wasn’t focused on the pain though. All we could focus on was a phone call to see how our eggs fertilized. We were told we wouldn’t get a phone call until the following morning. However, Katie got a phone call from the embryologist later that day who asked if he had permission to open our second vial of sperm. The eggs weren’t fertilizing and he wanted to try the second vial. We both went into panic. What if our eggs didn’t fertilize? What if our dreams were crushed? The dreams of us holding a little boy and girl in the hospital vanished from my head. My heart sunk. We were left wondering what happened until the following morning.

The next morning we got the phone call we weren’t hoping for. Out of the 13 eggs that had been retrieved, only 2 had survived. The embryologist had to perform rescue ICSI on the two remaining eggs and hoped they would fertilize. He informed us of the low percentage of eggs that survive this surgery so late after retrieval. Immediately after our phone call, we starting searching the internet for any information we could on surviving embryos from this procedure. We found more sad stories than happy ones. We hoped these two embryos would be our miracle babies and our dream could still come true.

The following day, we got the news we didn’t want, one of our eggs didn’t make it. We still held onto hope for our last remaining egg. I was still giving Katie shots of progesterone each night preparing her body for our embryo. Every night we went to bed wondering what would happen tomorrow. This process had lost its excitement.

Sadly, we got the phone call that our last egg didn’t make it. The news was devastating. Day after day we had been holding out hope that we could still have a healthy baby from this procedure. We were left feeling empty inside. We broke down crying on each other after we got that last phone call. We didn’t know what to do. All we could do was cry.

I turned to the internet for answers again. I had come across another option, embryo adoption.

Embryo adoption seemed like it could be the choice for us. What I liked about embryo adoption was that we could get 3 embryos and we could get our money back if it didn’t succeed in a pregnancy (if your health/age/history qualified, which we did). Unfortunately, this process is so expensive that money played an important role. We would have to borrow money from my mom to even do this procedure. We also considered that Katie’s body was ready for an embryo. We were still doing progesterone injections each night, not sure of our next decision. Our time was running out and we needed to make a choice. This could be our answer.

We moved along with the process of embryo adoption. We signed papers. We went back to our clinic for implantation. That morning we sat in the waiting room of our clinic. We weren’t smiling. We sat, staring at other couples in the waiting room wondering why they could have their dream and we couldn’t. Our names were called and we were walked back to our exam room. We sat, waiting. We didn’t even speak to each other. We were both consumed with our thoughts. Our nurse walked in. She was our nurse from our previous procedure and wanted to be with us during implantation. We had grown close with her and she was devastated as much as we were when our first round of IVF failed. As soon as she walked in, I burst into tears and she hugged me. I looked over and Katie was crying too. This was supposed to be a happy day so why were we both so sad? After talking with our nurse who consoled us, we decided to try IVF one more time.

We tried to stay positive but this time we were cautious more than ever. Katie looked to the internet for support. She found many blogs about IVF and other fertility stories. We both found this helpful. Hearing from other people who have gone through we went through was comforting. They had success and we would too. We looked into more detail when it came to a sperm donor. I found out as much as information as I could from the company after we narrowed our decision down to three donors. We were going to choose the right donor this time. The last donor we chose had problems during fertilization. This would not happen to us again.

We did the same needle routine. We prepped our bodies with shots. Egg retrieval day came again. I was in pain, again. After, we waited for that phone call the following morning, again. We were relieved when we didn’t get a phone call the day of egg retrieval as we did during our first round of IVF. The next morning, the embryologist called with great news. 18 eggs were retrieved, 9 went through ICSI the day of retrieval while the other 9 were left for regular fertilization. In the end, 11 embryos were fertilized!

Embryo transfer day was so exciting. It was like Christmas again and we could celebrate! We sat anxiously in the exam room eager to have our two embryos implanted. We watched the ultrasound screen as these two little flickers of light were implanted into Katie.

Just as we had our minds filled with excitement again, we were faced with turmoil. Our second embryo miscarried. It was a morning I would never forget. Katie panicking and crying in the bathroom with blood all over the floor. I tried to stay strong and hopeful that we didn’t lose both babies. We were able to get an appointment with our IVF clinic that afternoon. The work day dragged on, followed by an hour and half drive to our clinic that seemed to take forever. What a relief it was to hear our one baby’s heartbeat on the ultrasound. The huge blood clot we saw on the ultrasound sitting next to our tiny baby was terrifying. Our baby was still so small and the blood clot was four times the size of the baby. We were told the blood clot could take over the baby and end the pregnancy. It was unlikely our baby would survive.

However, the day came where our pregnancy had progressed enough to transfer to an OBGYN and leave our fertility clinic. We knew the risk of losing our baby was still there. Yet, we had gotten far enough along to transfer to another doctor. It was hard to not feel a little bit of happiness.

Luckily, our baby got bigger and the blood clot kept to itself. We spent the entire pregnancy very cautious. I know parents worry but we were beyond worried. We worried about every little thing. We tried not to talk about all our fears because it wouldn’t ease all our worries.

As Katie’s pregnancy progressed, we started to feel little moments of joy. I remember feeling Kennedy kick for the first time. I wanted to cry. I couldn’t believe a little baby was inside there. A baby we both created. It was an amazing moment. All my worries and fears faded in that minute.

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IT’S A GIRL

Finally, Kennedy’s birth day was here. Kennedy had been facing the wrong way the entire pregnancy so we scheduled a Cesarean section. We scheduled it for her estimated due date. It was a date we had memorized already and we felt it was meant to be that day. We checked into the hospital to only find out Katie shouldn’t have drank orange juice earlier that morning. It was frustrating, yet comical, that the day we were so anxiously awaiting for would now be delayed. We went from having a planned Cesarean at noon to have a Cesarean at five o’ clock that evening. We had to leave the hospital, go home, and wait around the house.

After we checked back into the hospital everything seemed to happen fast. Before I knew it, it was time to go in. I had so many worries going on in my head that day. Luckily, it wasn’t long after I heard crying. I was walked over to see her and it was amazing. I can’t explain how it feels to see your daughter laying there. It was overwhelming. This little girl you had once seen as an embryo. This little baby was created in a tiny dish. She was amazing and she was a perfect product of us. I just couldn’t believe this baby was ours and she was actually here. I felt a huge relief. I was no longer thinking about the pain from fertility procedures and needles, the mental pain I felt when our first round of IVF failed, or all the money we had spent on the process. Kennedy was all I could think about. We had our family now and our dream had become a reality.

In the days following after Kennedy was born, I thought back on our process when I held her. It’s amazing to think she started in a dish and grew into this baby. I can’t believe what science has allowed two moms to do. I feel she is the perfect combination of me and Katie and we both got to be a part of making her.

LIFE AFTER BIRTH

Katie and I have so much love to give Kennedy. We were already worried before she was born, but after she born, we worried about new things. Now we would watch her sleep, worried she would stop breathing. We worried over how she was put in her car seat. We worried about her weight gain. We were just permanent “worriers.” Even now I realize the worries will never go away. Being a parent means you will always be worried about your baby (no matter how old they get).

We spent thousands of dollars making Kennedy. This is nothing compared to what some couples have spent to have a baby. Once we had Kennedy, the money spent just became a number and nothing else. There are so many options now to becoming a parent. Whatever road you chose to go down, be positive. Be there for one another. Having a baby has created a tighter bond between the two of us. We are now a strong team and teamwork has become a key part to our marriage. Teamwork was something that still needed improvement in our marriage before Kennedy was born. However, the process to create Kennedy tightened any weak areas in our marriage.

To every person out there who had done IVF, it truly changes who you are. The journey we go on is like no other. I am so happy we decided to try again because if we didn’t, Kennedy wouldn’t be here. I do still think about the “what ifs” with embryo adoption. We almost went through with it and I wonder if we would have two babies by now. I wonder what they would look like and how they would be quite a few months older than Kennedy is now. I think about our little boy or girl we lost who was supposed to be here with Kennedy right now. I think about all the tears, worries, and stress in this journey. I think about all the joy we will have now that she is here. I don’t know how it feels to be a mother who has a baby the male/female way without any labs or doctors helping you make your baby, but I do know the feeling you have seeing a baby you once saw a picture of in a dish. That feeling is the most amazing feeling I will ever have. I am so grateful for the help of science and for being alive in a time that has a process such as this. Reciprocal IVF made our dreams a reality.

We started our Instagram account to help TTC couples and LGBT couples. When we were struggling to make our family, we sought out Instagram accounts and blogs of families who were undergoing fertility treatments to help make their family. Reading blogs and following many families on Instagram gave us hope for our family and got us through our toughest times. The online community we have found has been incredibly supportive in our journey. It’s amazing to find others who are feeling the same emotions you are during a hard process. We hope we can help others too.

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BABYWEARING EXPERIENCE

Babywearing has been amazing for us. Even before Kennedy was born, we knew we wanted to wear her. For me, wearing Kennedy has been really special. Since I didn’t carry Kennedy, it was nice forming a bond with her through baby wearing. Katie and Kennedy instantly had their bond through pregnancy as well as through nursing. When I wore Kennedy, I felt close to her physically and emotionally. It’s so nice to wrap your arms around your little one and feel her head against your chest. Baby wearing also made it easy to leave the house for walks or go out and about. It was easy to grab the carrier and go. Kennedy loves observing the world safely from being strapped to us. When she was a few months old, we found that when we took her to new places not in a wrap or baby carrier, she had a hard time adjusting and it resulted in endless crying. In the carrier or wrap, she felt safe. She was calm and could still see what was happening, but knew she was safe next to her mom. Even now, at 7 months old, she still adjusts better being in a carrier when going to new places. Having her in a carrier also allows to get so many things done. It’s so nice having your baby on you so you don’t have to worry about what they are doing while you get some housework done. Kennedy also cries when we aren’t holding her so the carrier allows us to carry her and still have both hands free to work. The Tula is supportive so you don’t even notice you have a baby on you!

There are so many types of wraps and carriers out there it’s hard to choose which one to get! We started off with a few, but later heard about Tula from a friend. After researching the Tula, we decided we wanted to invest in one. The back support we felt from the Tula was unbelievable! Our backs had a hard time adjusting to carrying weight on the front of us for long periods of time. The Tula took the weight off our backs. As Kennedy grew older, the Tula still showed the same support. Kennedy also loves sucking on the sides of her Tula. We also use the Tula ring sling. The ring slings are beautiful. We can still keep Kennedy close to us. Currently the ring sling is nice to have because Kennedy can sit on the side of our hip when we walking around. We feel like we are showing off the beauty of baby wearing when we wear the ring sling. Both carriers are amazing. They both keep you close to your baby and connect you instantly. Which carrier you decide to wear really just depends on how you want to wear your baby or where you are going. We enjoy both 🙂

Thank you to Christina, Katie, and Kennedy for sharing their story with us! To learn more about their family, you can follow their blog: https://babybaileymamadrama.wordpress.com/

DIY Ugly Christmas Sweater Baby Carrier Edition

DIY Ugly Christmas Sweater Baby Carrier

Don’t leave baby out at your ugly sweater party! Decorate your baby carrier for the ultimate holiday look! Try one of these quick and easy DIYs, or share your own in the comments!

garlandGarland Decor
What you’ll need:
– Tula Baby Carrier of your choice. We used ‘Olive’ Tula Baby Carrier
– Strand of garland
– Mini ornaments
– Tape

How to:
1. Tie garland around the base of the top strap
2. Loosely pull garland to the bottom of the opposite strap and tie it around
3. Loosely pull garland to the opposite end base of the strap and tie it around
4. Loosely pull garland to bottom waistband and tape the end of the garland inside the waistband to secure it
5. Once garland is secured in zig-zag pattern, attach mini ornaments along garland


bowsGift Bow Tree
What you’ll need:
– Tula Baby Carrier of your choice. We used ‘Delish’ Tula Baby Carrier
– Assortment of gift bows. Depending how big of a tree you want, we used 10 bows

How to:
1. Remove protective paper off sticky side of the tape
2. Starting from the top, place your biggest bow in the center at the height you desire
3. Work your way down creating your tree shape

 

 


bowPresent with Bow
What you’ll need:
– Tula Baby Carrier of your choice. We used ‘Urbanista’ Tula Baby Carrier
– Spool of wide gift ribbon
– Big ribbon bow
– Tape
– Scissors

How to:
1. Measure the height of your carrier from top to bottom and cut a piece of ribbon that length
2. Measure the width of your carrier from side to side a little higher than the center and cut a piece of ribbon that length
3. Use double sided tape to tape the ribbon to the carrier
4. Use double sided tape to tape a big bow where the ribbon crosses

 

 

 

Share your ugly Christmas sweater with us on our Instagram or Facebook!

Day 12 :Ula’s Picks Holiday Gift Guide & Giveaway

Day 12 :Ula’s Picks Holiday Gift Guide & Giveaway

For our final gift guide in our 12 days of Holiday Gift Guides & Giveaways, we asked Baby Tula founder, Ula, to give us her pick’s for the holidays! Ula loves delightful patterns in soft or neutral colors and it inspires the designs used for Tula items. Along with a very special Tula Wrap Conversion Carrier, Ula selected items that she personally enjoys with her own children.

You can WIN all of Ula’s picks by entering on our Facebook and Instagram pages. Everyone is a winner with a special, one day 10% discount on our Tula Woven items (includes Woven Wraps, Wrap Conversion Ring Slings and Torbas). Use the code: ULA. Valid only on December 9th, 2016 PST.

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tula-love-asteriaFull Standard Wrap Conversion Carrier - Tula Love Asteria

Baby Tula Wrap Conversion Carriers are structurally the same as Tula Baby Carriers and are offered in the same sizes. However, these carriers are made with Woven Wrap material, lending them to the beauty and specialty of Baby Tula Woven Wraps. Wrap conversion Tulas were made for experienced babywearers who love the look and feel of woven wraps but want the simplicity of a buckle carrier.

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Ryle & Cru Holiday 2015 Studio PhotoshootRylee and Cru $150 Gift Card

A children’s line founded by illustrator Kelli Murray and inspired by her own little ones. Rylee and Cru merges art and imagination, offering unique and artistic clothing for the modern child. The collection consists of quality basics that are each hand garment dyed, giving them a soft vintage feel right out of the box. The shapes are comfortable and the fabrics are soft, making dressing easy for baby and mama.

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0b3a8618Slugs & Snails Unisex Tights

Bright Tights for Bold Boys and Girls! The original unisex tights company. Organic, ethical and pure luxury for little legs!

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land-of-nod-lifestyleThe Land of Nod - Freezy Dream Ice Cream Truck Tent

Kids won't always scream for ice cream. Although, we have no scientific data to back that up. But, we're certain they will scream when they see this ice cream truck play tent in their play room. It features handmade embroidered and patchwork details (including two awnings) so it looks just like the real thing.

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stonzStonz Toddler Booties (with waterproof and recyclable soles!)

Our new Toddler Booties have a waterproof bottom so toddlers could play outside even longer. The bottom is made of a durable, flexible material called PLUSfoam which is waterproof, recyclable, hypo-allergenic and non-bacterial. The booties have a soft, fleece lining so they can be worn with socks, slippers, shoes or bare feet - making them adaptable for most of the seasons!

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Rock-a-bye Baby: Biological and Social Processes Underlying Calming Effects of Babywearing

In a previous blog post, we discussed the relation between infant crying and carrying, showing that increased physical contact with infants is associated with decreased crying. Many different types of studies – from randomized control trials of skin-to-skin contact to ethnographic descriptions of care-giving in other cultures – have come to the same conclusion, lending further support to the vast benefits of wearing your baby. These findings do not entirely solve the puzzle, however, as the reason for WHY physical contact is so calming is still an open question. As with most human phenomena, there seems to be an intricate combination of biological, cultural, and psychological forces at play.

How does physical contact regulate infant distress?

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Biological Mechanisms: Sensory Stimulation

In an experimental study with mouse pups, experimenters isolated the effects of physical contact from related sensations of maternal carrying.  Experimenters administered local anesthesia to the part of the body in physical contact with the mother during carrying (i.e., the base of the neck where the mouse mother picks up the pup), thereby removing the effect of physical contact. When mouse pups couldn’t actually feel the sensation of tactile contact from the mother, the calming reaction – that mouse pups usually show when carried – was not demonstrated. Similarly, after temporarily disrupting the functioning of the part of the brain that controls proprioception, which allows us to feel rhythmic sensations like being rocked, being carried by the mothers also did not elicit the calming effect seen in mouse pups during normal carrying interactions. When exposing the mouse pups to visual, olfactory, or auditory stimuli, the calming effects also could not be induced. These results show that both the physical contact with the mother and the sensation of being rocked are responsible for the calming effects of carrying.[1]

Why is touch and physical contact more calming than visual or vocal contact with caregivers?

Many people know that newborns do not arrive into the world with fully-developed eyesight and in fact, both the visual and auditory systems are still developing well into the first years of life. Given the sensitivity of the developing sensory system, inappropriate amounts of visual or auditory stimulation not only lack the ability to calm infants, but can actually interrupt sensory development[2] and physiological processes like sleep cycles.[3] Physical contact is the most gentle and developmentally-appropriate modality of interaction with newborn infants. In addition, babywearing in a front carrier (not forward-facing) allows infants to regulate their stimulation level by giving them a place to turn their face into the calming safety zone of the caregiver’s chest, rather than being bombarded with overwhelming amounts of visual and auditory stimulation.

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Biological Mechanisms: Oxytocin

It is nearly impossible to read anything about birthing and postnatal bonding without mention of the “love drug” oxytocin. Within the context of infant-caregiver physical contact, the production of the neuropeptide oxytocin that is stimulated by skin-to-skin contact is able to increase maternal breast temperature,[4] explaining the miraculous incubator-like effects of skin-to-skin kangaroo care (for more info, see the blog post on kangaroo care). Beyond the physiological effects, can oxytocin also provide an explanation for increased calmness and decreased crying associated with babywearing?

It is unclear whether oxytocin itself decreases crying. However, oxytocin may be mediating decreased crying through a social mechanism: increased maternal responsiveness. Oxytocin is well established in its ability to elicit maternal care and affection[5] and has also been shown to increase patience and interactivity in fathers.[6] Oxytocin is also specifically implicated in the neural response to infant crying.[7]

So why would maternal responsiveness explain the calming effects of babywearing?

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 Social Mechanisms: Responsiveness

Responsiveness refers to the ability to respond to infants’ signals promptly and appropriately. Why is this important when trying to understand the relationship between physical contact and crying?

As outlined in a previous blog on crying and physical contact, the cultures with the lowest rates of crying have some of the highest rates of physical contact with infants. Interestingly, these proximal care cultures also exhibit another important difference in care-giving style: increased responsiveness. Specifically, adult caregivers respond more quickly – almost in an anticipatory fashion – to infants’ cues.[8] In contrast to Western culture, responsiveness in these cultures often refers to a tendency to respond specifically to signs of distress, rather than playful bids for attention.[9]

Experimental research has also highlighted a connection between babywearing, responsiveness, and decreased crying. In the intervention study of the effect of babywearing by Anisfeld and colleagues, mothers in the babywearing group were more responsive to infants during a play session at three months than parents in the control group. [10] Developmental scientists – in studies such as these – generally measure responsiveness as vocal or visual communicative responses within the context of dyadic playtime between infants and caregivers. But a closer look at the variation in responsiveness across cultures suggests that this methodological approach may be constraining our views of responsiveness. In proximal care cultures, responsiveness is not only referring to highly contingent responses to any sign of infant distress, but to a specific type of response, which is often offering the breast for nursing.

Is responsive breastfeeding one of the specific forms of responsiveness driving the decreased crying seen in proximal care cultures? Is there evidence for this from experimental studies of breastfeeding? Stay tuned! Next blog post will address the relation between mother-infant physical contact, breastfeeding, and crying.

 

This Guest Blog was written by Emily E. Little, M.A.

Emily is a doctoral candidate in developmental psychology at University of California, San Diego. Her dissertation research examines the social mechanisms underlying the benefits of babywearing, including how increased mother-infant physical contact facilitates higher maternal responsiveness. Her research program more broadly investigates culturally-mediated mother-infant communication, and she has collected data on early teaching in Vanuatu, infant emotional displays in Bolivia, and breastfeeding patterns in Guatemala. She is also specializing in anthropogeny, or the study of human origins, through UCSD’s Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA), which has added an evolutionary perspective to her interests in culture, mother-infant interaction, and babywearing. She is passionate about making a positive contribution in the communities where she works, not just in San Diego – where she volunteers as a Volunteer Babywearing Educator in training with Babywearing International – but also at her international fieldsites, where she volunteers at community health centers and raises money for maternal and infant health services.

[1] Esposito, G., Yoshida, S., Ohnishi, R., Tsuneoka, Y., del Carmen Rostagno, M., Yokota, S., … & Venuti, P. (2013). Infant calming responses during maternal carrying in humans and mice. Current Biology23(9), 739-745.

[2] Kathleen Philbin, M., Ballweg, D. D., & Gray, L. (1994). The effect of an intensive care unit sound environment on the development of habituation in healthy avian neonates. Developmental psychobiology27(1), 11-21.

[3] Hao, H., & Rivkees, S. A. (1999). The biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences96(5), 2426-2429.

[4] Winberg, J. A. N. (2005). Mother and newborn baby: mutual regulation of physiology and behavior—a selective review. Developmental psychobiology47(3), 217-229.

[5] Pedersen, C. A., Ascher, J. A., Monroe, Y. L., & Prange, A. J. (1982). Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in virgin female rats. Science,216(4546), 648-650.

[6] Naber, F., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Deschamps, P., van Engeland, H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2010). Intranasal oxytocin increases fathers’ observed responsiveness during play with their children: a double-blind within-subject experiment. Psychoneuroendocrinology,35(10), 1583-1586.

[7] Riem, M. M., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Tops, M., Boksem, M. A., Rombouts, S. A., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). No laughing matter: intranasal oxytocin administration changes functional brain connectivity during exposure to infant laughter. Neuropsychopharmacology37(5), 1257-1266.

[8] Richman, A. L., Miller, P. M., & LeVine, R. A. (1992). Cultural and educational variations in maternal responsiveness. Developmental Psychology28(4), 614.

[9] Barr, R. G., Konner, M., Bakeman, R., & Adamson, L. (1991). Crying in! Kung San infants: a test of the cultural specificity hypothesis.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology33(7), 601-610.

[10] Anisfeld, E., Casper, V., Nozyce, M., & Cunningham, N. (1990). Does infant carrying promote attachment? An experimental study of the effects of increased physical contact on the development of attachment. Child development61(5), 1617-1627.